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Skin Treatments

Introduction

Skin is the largest organ of the body, accounting for about 15% of the total adult body weight. It is not uniformly thick, the average thickness of the skin is about 1 to 2 mm. The skin is continuous, with the mucous membranes lining the body’s surface. The integumentary system is formed by the skin and its derivative structures.

LAYERS OF SKIN

Skin is made up of 3 layers:
I. Outer epidermis
II. Inner dermis.
III. Subcutaneous tissue

EPIDERMIS

Epidermis is the outer layer of skin. It is formed by stratified, squamous epithelium layer that is composed primarily of two types of cells:
⦁ Keratinocytes
⦁ Dendritic cells.

KERATINOCYTE -

At least 80% of cells in the epidermis are the ectodermally derived keratinocytes. The differentiation process that occurs as the cells migrate from the basal layer to the surface of the skin results in keratinization . It consists of a specific constellation of cells known as keratinocytes, which function to synthesize keratin, a long, threadlike protein with a protective role. The keratinocytes differ from the “clear” dendritic cells by possessing intercellular bridges and ample amounts of stainable cytoplasm. Bundles of these keratin filaments converge on and terminate at the plasma membrane forming the intercellular attachment plates known as desmosomes. The epidermis harbors a number of other cell populations, such as Melanocytes - The melanocyte is a dendritic, pigment-synthesizing cell derived from the neural crest and confined in the skin pre- dominantly to the basal layer . Melanocytes are responsible for the production of the pigment melanin and its transfer to keratinocytes.

Langerhans cells –

Langerhans cells are involved in a variety of T-cell responses. Derived from the bone marrow, these cells migrate to a suprabasal position in the epidermis early in embryonic development and continue to circulate and repopulate the epidermis throughout life. Langerhans cells constitute 2%–8% of the total epidermal cell population and maintain nearly constant numbers and distributions in a particular area of the body. hey are found in other squamous epithelia in addition to the epidermis, including the oral cavity, oesophagus, and vagina, as well as in lymphoid organs and in the normal dermis

Merkel cells –

They are oval-shaped, slow-adapting, type I mechanoreceptors located in sites of high tactile sensitivity that are attached to basal keratinocytes by desmosomal junctions. Merkel cells are found in the digits, lips, regions of the oral cavity, and outer root sheath of the hair follicle and are sometimes assembled into specialized structures known as tactile discs or touch domes. They secrete a chemical signal that generates an action potential in the adjoining afferent neuron, which relays the signal to the brain. The high concentration of Merkel cells in certain regions such as the fingertips results in smaller and more densely packed receptive fields and thus higher tactile resolution and sensitivity.

Three Basic Cell Types in the Epidermis

The three basic cell types in the epidermis include keratinocytes (some labelled K ) and Langerhans cells (L) in the Malpighian layer and melanocytes (M ) in the basal layer. Arrows point to the basement membrane zone, which separates the basal layer of the epidermis from the underlying dermis (D).

Layers of Epidermis (according to keratinocyte morphology and position)

1. Stratum corneum (the cornified or horny cell layer)
2. Stratum lucidum
3. Stratum granulosum (the granular cell layer)
4. Stratum spinosum (the squamous cell layer)
5. Stratum germinativum (basal cell layer)

The lower three layers that constitute the living, nucleated cells of the epidermis are sometimes referred to as the stratum malpighii and rete malpighii. The epidermis is a continually renewing layer and gives rise to derivative structures, such as pilosebaceous apparatuses, nails, and sweat glands. The basal cells of the epidermis undergo proliferation cycles that provide for the renewal of the outer epidermis. The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which cells are constantly in unsynchronized motion, as differing individual cell populations pass not only one another but also melanocytes and Langerhans cells as they move toward the surface of the skin. Important feature of epidermis is that, it does not have blood vessels. Nutrition is provided to the epidermis by the capillaries of dermis.

⦁ STRATUM CORNEUM -

It is the outermost layer and consists of dead cells, which are called corneocytes. These cells lose their nucleus due to pressure and become dead cells. The cytoplasm is flattened with fibrous protein known as keratin. These cells also contain phospholipids and glycogen. The corneocytes, which are rich in protein and low in lipid content, are surrounded by a continuous extracellular lipid matrix.

⦁ STRATUM LUCIDUM –

It is made up of flattened epithelial cells. Many cells have degenerated nucleus and in some cells, the nucleus is absent. As these cells exhibit shiny character, the layer looks like a homogeneous translucent zone. So, this layer is called stratum lucidum (lucid = clear).

⦁ STRATUM GRANULOSUM –

It is the most superficial layer and thin layer of epidermis containing two to five rows of flattened rhomboid cells (living cells). Cytoplasm contains granules of a protein called keratohyalin. Keratohyalin is the precursor of keratin. under thin cornified layer areas, the granular layer may be only 1–3 cell layers in thickness, whereas under the palms of the hands and soles of the feet the granular layer may be 10 times this thickness. A very thin or absent granular layer can lead to extensive parakeratosis in which the nuclei of keratinocytes persist as the cells move into the stratum corneum, resulting in psoriasis. they are necessary in the formation of both the inter fibrillary matrix that holds keratin filaments together and the inner lining of the horny cells.

⦁ STRATUM SPINOSUM –

It is also known as prickle cell layer because, the cells of this layer possess some spinelike protoplasmic projections. By these projections, the cells are connected to one another. It is 5 – 10 cells thick and known as squamous cell layer. The squamous layer is composed of a variety of cells that differ in shape, structure, and subcellular properties depending on their location. Intercellular spaces between spinous cells are bridged by abundant desmosomes that promote mechanical coupling be- tween cells of the epidermis and provide resistance to physical stresses.

⦁ STRATUM GERMINATIVUM -

It is a thick layer made up of polygonal cells, superficially and columnar or cuboidal shaped keratinocytes that attach to the basement membrane zone with their long axis perpendicular to the dermis. Here, new cells are constantly formed by mitotic division. The stem cells, which give rise to new cells, are known as keratinocytes. Another type of cells called melanocytes are scattered between the keratinocytes. Melanocytes produce the pigment called melanin. The color of the skin depends upon melanin. From this layer, some projections called rete ridges extend down up to dermis. These projections provide anchoring and nutritional function.

Epidermal Appendages

Skin is made up of 3 layers:
I. Outer epidermis
II. Inner dermis.
III. Subcutaneous tissue

SWEAT GLANDS

Features Eccrine glands Apocrine glands
1. Distribution Throughout the body Only in limited areas like axilla, pubis, areola and umbilicus
2. Opening Exterior through sweat pore Into the hair follicle
3. Period of functioning Function throughout life Start functioning only at puberty
4. Secretion Clear and watery Thick and milky
5. Regulation of body temperature Play important role in temperature regulation Do not play any role in temperature regulation
6. Conditions when secretion increases During increased temperature and emotional conditions Only during emotional conditions
7. Control of secretory activity Under nervous control Under hormonal control
8. Nerve supply Sympathetic cholinergic fibers Sympathetic adrenergic fibers

APOECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS –

They develops during puberty from eccrine-like precursors, opening directly unto the skin. The AEG has a secretory rate as much as 10 times that of the eccrine gland and is therefore thought to contribute to axillary hyperhidrosis

HAIR FOLLICLES -

Hair has many valuable biologic functions including protection from the elements and distribution of sweat-gland products. In addition, it has an important psychosocial role in society. The number and distribution of hair follicles over the body and the future phenotype of each hair is established during fetal development; no extra follicles are added after birth. The sebaceous gland forms from a bud in the fetal hair follicle. The arrector pili (AP) are a smooth muscle bundle that attaches to the external root sheath of the follicle. Hair color is determined by the distribution of melanosomes in the hair shaft. The hair bulb contains melanocytes that synthesize melanosomes and transfer them to the keratinocytes of the bulb matrix.

HAIR FOLLICLE STRUCTURE

Phases of Hair Growth

SEBACEOUS GLANDS -

Sebaceous glands are simple or branched alveolar glands, situated in the dermis of skin.

Structure

Sebaceous glands are ovoid or spherical in shape and are situated at the side of the hair follicle. These glands develop from hair follicles. So, the sebaceous glands are absent over the thick skin, which is devoid of hair follicles. Each gland is covered by a connective tissue capsule. Sebaceous glands open into the neck of the hair follicle through a duct. In some areas like face, lips, nipple, glans penis and labia minora, the sebaceous glands open directly into the exterior.

Secretion of Sebaceous Gland – Sebum

Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called sebum. Sebum is formed by the liquefaction of the alveolar cells and poured out through the ducts either via the hair follicle or directly into the exterior.

Composition of Sebum

Sebum contains: 1. Free fatty acids 2. Triglycerides 3. Squalene 4. Sterols 5. Waxes 6. Paraffin.

Functions of Sebum

⦁ Free fatty acid content of the sebum has antibacterial and antifungal actions.Thus, it prevents the infection of skin by bacteria or fungi

⦁ Lipid nature of sebum keeps the skin smooth and oily. It protects the skin from unnecessary desquamation and injury caused by dryness

⦁ Lipids of the sebum prevent heat loss from the body. It is particularly useful in cold climate.

NAILS

Fingernails provide protection to the fingertips, enhance sensation, and allow small objects to be grasped. The underlying nail bed is part of the nail matrix containing blood vessels, nerves, and melanocytes and has parallel rete ridges. The nail plate is formed from matrix keratinocytes. Fingernails grow at an average rate of 0.1 mm per day, two to three times faster than the rate of toenail growth. For example, arsenic poisoning may cause a horizontal hypopigmentation across all nail plates known as Mees lines.

Nail psoriasis

Nail psoriasis can cause nail denting or crumbling. Causes People living with psoriasis may develop symptoms. It occurs when psoriasis affects the skin of the nail bed or near the nail beds.

Symptoms

⦁ crumbling nails pitting
⦁ changes in color to yellow or brown
⦁ a build-up of skin under the nails
⦁ blood under the nails
⦁ the nail separates from the bed

Brittle splitting nails

Brittle splitting nails, or onychoschizia, is a common issue that dermatologists see. The condition can cause brittle, soft, splitting, or thin nails.

Causes

Common causes of brittle nails are repeatedly wetting and drying the nails. Though less common, other causes may include iron deficiency or underlying illness.

Symptoms

The most common symptom is that the nails break easily. The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology state people can often tell if the cause is internal, as the condition affects both fingernails and toenails. If there is an external cause, symptoms will typically only affect the fingernails.

Onychogryphosis

Onychogryphosis is a condition where the nail becomes overgrown and thick, often affecting the big toe. It can cause one portion of the nail to grow longer than the other part.

Causes

Potential causes of onychogryphosis include: ⦁ genetics ⦁ injury ⦁ circulation issues ⦁ psoriasis ichthyosis

Symptoms

When a person has onychogryphosis, the nail grows very thick. In other cases, a portion of the nail may grow larger than the other part. The growth can resemble a ram’s horn, so people often refer to it as Ram’s horn nails

Ingrown toenails 

An ingrown toenail can cause pain and swelling, and in some cases, they can become infected.

Causes

According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, genetics may play a role in the development of ingrown toenails. Also, there are other potential causes, including: ⦁ not keeping nails trimmed ⦁ wearing tight socks or shoes ⦁ physical injury

Symptoms

Symptoms can include: ⦁ swelling and tenderness ⦁ redness ⦁ soreness pus

Nail fungal infections

Nail fungal infections are a common condition that causes the nails to become thick, discolored, and easier to break. Nail fungus is more common in the toes than fingers.

Causes

Several different types of molds and fungus can affect nails. They grow when a crack or break traps fungi between the nail and the nail bed. Sweat, athlete’s foot, and salon manicures and pedicures can put people at higher risk of nail fungal infections.

Symptoms

Symptoms include: ⦁ thick nails ⦁ discolored nails that are brown, yellow or white ⦁ fragile or cracked nails Fungus under the nails often is not painful

Onycholysis 

Onycholysis is when the toe or fingernail painlessly separates from the nail bed. It typically occurs slowly over time and could result from an underlying health condition or injury.

Causes

The most common cause is from local injury to the nail. Other triggers include: ⦁ excessive filing ⦁ exposure to chemicals ⦁ allergic ⦁ contact dermatitis ⦁ submersion in water Psoriasis, fungal infections, and reactions to certain medications are also common causes.

Symptoms

The main symptom of onycholysis is the separation of the nail from the nail bed. This can result in discoloration of the nail, turning it green, yellow, or opaque. It can also cause additional skin tissue under the nail, nail pitting, nail thickening, or bending of the nail edges.

Paronychia 

Paronychia is an infection that causes redness and swelling around the edges of a nail bed.

Causes

There are two types of paronychia: acute and chronic. Acute paronychia occurs when there is an infection due to direct or indirect trauma to the cuticle or nail fold. Chronic paronychia is often the result of allergens or irritants.

Symptoms

Acute paronychia symptoms can include: ⦁ swelling ⦁ pain ⦁ redness  ⦁ fever and gland pain in severe cases ⦁ yellow pus Chronic paronychia often starts on one nail and spreads to others. The nail folds may have the following symptoms: ⦁ redness  ⦁ pain ⦁ swelling ⦁ yellow or green pus ⦁ lifting of the nail from the bed ⦁ tenderness

DERMIS

Dermis is the inner layer of the skin. It is an integrated system of fibrous, filamentous, and amorphous connective tissue that accommodates stimulus induced entry by nerve and vascular networks, epidermally derived appendages, fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells. It is a connective tissue layer, made up of dense and stout collagen fiber fibroblasts and histiocytes. Collagen fibers exhibit elastic property and are capable of storing or holding water. Collagen fibers contain the enzyme collagenase, which is responsible for wound healing. The dermis lies on the subcutaneous tissue, or panniculus, which contains small lobes of fat cells known as lipocytes. The thickness of these layers varies considerably, depending on the geographic location on the anatomy of the body. The eyelid, for example, has the thinnest layer of the epidermis, measuring less than 0.1 mm, whereas the palms and soles of the feet have the thickest epidermal layer, measuring approximately 1.5 mm. The dermis is thickest on the back, where it is 30–40 times as thick as the overlying epidermis. The dermis comprises the bulk of the skin and provides its pliability, elasticity, and tensile strength. It protects the body from mechanical injury, binds water, aids in thermal regulation, and includes receptors of sensory stimuli.

LAYERS OF DERMIS

Dermis is made up of two layers: 1. Superficial papillary layer 2. Deeper reticular layer.

SUPERFICIAL PAPILLARY LAYER -

It projects into the epidermis. It contains blood vessels, lymphatics and nerve fibers. This layer also has some pigment containing cells known as chromatophores. Dermal papillae are finger like projections, arising from the superficial papillary dermis. Each papilla contains a plexus of capillaries and lymphatics, which are oriented perpendicular to the skin surface.

RETICULAR LAYER -

It is made up of reticular and elastic fibers. These fibers are found around the hair bulbs, sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The reticular layer also contains mast cells, nerve endings, lymphatics, epidermal appendages and fibroblasts. Immediately below the dermis, subcutaneous tissue is present. It is a loose connective tissue, which connects the skin with the internal structures of the body. It serves as an insulator to protect the body from excessive heat and cold of the environment.

FUNCTIONS OF SKIN

⦁ PROTECTIVE FUNCTION
⦁ SENSORY FUNCTION
⦁ STORAGE FUNCTION
⦁ SYNTHETIC FUNCTION
⦁ REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE
⦁ REGULATION OF WATER AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
⦁ EXCRETORY FUNCTION
⦁ ABSORPTIVE FUNCTION
⦁ SECRETORY FUNCTION

PROTECTIVE FUNCTION -

Skin forms the covering of all the organs of the body and protects these organs from the following factors: ⦁ Bacteria and toxic substances ⦁ Mechanical blow ⦁ Ultraviolet rays.

SENSORY FUNCTION -

Skin is considered as the largest sense organ in the body. It has many nerve endings, which form the specialized cutaneous receptors These receptors are stimulated by sensations of touch, pain, pressure or temperature sensation and convey these sensations to the brain via afferent nerves. At the brain level, perception of different sensations occurs. STORAGE FUNCTION - Skin stores fat, water, chloride and sugar. It can also store blood by the dilatation of the cutaneous blood vessels.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTION -

Vitamin D3 is synthesized in skin by the action of ultraviolet rays from sunlight on cholesterol REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE - Skin plays an important role in the regulation of body temperature. Excess heat is lost from the body through skin by radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. Sweat glands of the skin play an active part in heat loss, by secreting sweat. The lipid content sebum prevents loss of heat from the body in cold environment. REGULATION OF WATER AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE - Skin regulates water balance and electrolyte balance by excreting water and salts through sweat.

EXCRETORY FUNCTION -

Skin excretes small quantities of waste materials like urea, salts and fatty substance.

ABSORPTIVE FUNCTION -

Skin absorbs fat-soluble substances and some ointments.

SECRETORY FUNCTION -

Skin secretes sweat through sweat glands and sebum through sebaceous glands. By secreting sweat, skin regulates body temperature and water balance. Sebum keeps the skin smooth and moist.

PSYCHONEUROIMMUNO DERMATOLOGY

SKIN TYPES AS A PERSONALITY REFLECTION

CLASSIFICATION OF SKIN LESIONS

TYPES OF LESION

Basic skin lesions are broadly categorized as :

⦁ PRIMARY – Basic reaction patterns of skin with a definite morphology.

⦁ SECONDARY – Develop during the evolutionary process of skin disease or are created by scratching or infection.

⦁ SPECIAL – Specific for certain disease.

DESCRIPTION OF PRIMARY SKIN LESIONS

⦁ Macule:

A flat, colored lesion, < 2cm in diameter, not raised above the surface of the surrounding skin. A “freckle” or ephelid is a prototypical pigmented macule.

⦁ Patch:A large (>2-cm) flat lesion with a color different from the surrounding skin. This differs from a macule only in size.

⦁ Papule:

A small, solid lesion, < 0.5cm in diameter, raised above the surface of the surrounding skin and thus palpable (e.g., a closed comedone, or whitehead in acne)

⦁ Plaque:

A large (>1-cm), flat-topped, raised lesion; edges may either be distinct (e.g., in psoriasis) or gradually blend with surrounding skin (e.g., in eczematous dermatitis).

⦁ Nodule:

A larger (0.5- to 5.0-cm), firm lesion raised above the surface of the surrounding skin. This differs from a papule only in size (e.g., a large dermal nevomelanocytic nevus).

⦁ Tumor:

A solid, raised growth >5 cm in diameter.

⦁ Vesicle:

A small, fluid-filled lesion, 0.5 cm in diameter, raised above the plane of surrounding skin. Fluid is often visible, and the lesions are translucent (e.g., vesicles in allergic contact dermatitis caused by Toxicodendron [poison ivy].

⦁ Bulla:

A fluid-filled, raised, often translucent lesion >0.5 cm in diameter.

⦁ Pustule:

A vesicle filled with leukocytes. Note: The presence of pustules does not necessarily signify the existence of an infection.

⦁ Abscess:

It is a localized collection of pus deep in dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Due to deep seated location pus may not be visible on skin surface but would show sign of inflammation.

⦁ Cyst:

It is a spherical or oval sac or an encapsulated cavity containing fluid or semi solid material. It is lined with true epithelium.

⦁ Wheal:

It is a transient swelling of skin disappearing within 24hr. A raised, erythematous, edematous papule or plaque, usually representing short-lived vasodilation and vasopermeability.

⦁ Telangiectasia:

A dilated, superficial blood vessel.

DESCRIPTION OF SECONDARY SKIN LESIONS

⦁ Lichenification:

A distinctive thickening of the skin that is characterized by accentuated skin-fold markings.

⦁ Scale:

Excessive accumulation of stratum corneum. They are dead epidermal cells that are produced by abnormal keratinization and shedding.

Hair Care

(A) Food items good for hairs

 Eggs – Protein

 Spinach – Vitamin A

 Sweet Potato – Vitamin A

 Blueberries –Vitamin C

 Salmon – Omega 3 fatty acids

 Meat – Protein

 Walnuts – Protein, Copper, Omega fatty acids & Vitamin E

 Pumpkin – Vitamin A, C, E, Zinc & Iron.

(B) Food items not good for hairs -

 Sugar

 Artificial Sweeteners

 Sword Fish

 Fast Food

 Alcohol

Diseases of Hairs

Hair loss or Alopecia

– Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body. Typically at least the head is involved. The severity of hair loss can vary from a small area to the entire body. Inflammation or scarring is not usually present. Hair loss in some people causes psychological distress
Variants-

Alopecia areata

is a condition that causes hair to fall out in small patches, which can be unnoticeable. These patches may connect, however, and then become noticeable. The condition develops when the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss. Sudden hair loss may occur on the scalp, and in some cases the eyebrows, eyelashes, and face, as well as other parts of the body. It can also develop slowly and recur after years between instances.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Phosphorus -

Itching of scalp, dandruff, falling out of hairs in large bunches.
Falling of hairs from forepart of head and especially above ears.
Alopecia areata with dry scabs and great scaliness of scalp.
Patient is very susceptible to clod yet loves cold drinks.

Natrum Muraticum -

Has a marked action on hair follicles, hence a wonderful medicine for Hair fall.
Oily, greasy skin.
Dry eruptions, dandruff and scales especially on the margins of hairy scalp, behind the ears and bends of joints.
Patient has an extreme desire for salt and salty food with great thirst.

Fluoricum Acidicum -

A leading remedy for both Alopecia areata and Alopecia universalis.
Falling off of hairs, the new hair is dry and breaks off easily.
Early Baldness.
Severe itching of the head

Vinca Minor

Spots on scalp with oozing moisture. (Humid eruptions)
Hair falls out and is replaced by grey hair.
Matting hair together.
Corrosive itching of scalp with irresistible desire to scratch.
Bald spots on the head covered with short, woolly hair.

(b) Alopecia Universalis

The condition can result in total hair loss, called alopecia univers
alis, and it can prevent hair from growing back. When hair does grow back, it’s possible for the hair to fall out again.
The extent of hair loss and regrowth varies from person to person.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Acid Phosphoricum

Hair turns gray early in life and falls out.
Hairs are thin, delicate and easy to break.
Hair fall after grief.
Patient is thin, emaciated with profound mental and physical weakness.
Indifference to everything

Selenium Metallicum -

Hair falls out in young man with sexual debility.
Falling off of the hair when combing it.
Falling of hairs especially from eyebrows, whiskers, beard and genitals.
Tingling itching of scalp in evening, oozing after scratching.
Scalp is too oily and face is full of acne.

Psorinum -

Great falling hairs from whole head.
Hairs are dry, lusterless, tangles easily, glues together.
Humid scabby eruptions full of lice.
Head feels too clod that patient needs to cover his head with a fur cap even in summers.
Humid eruptions with Alopecia universalis

Fluoricum Acidicum

A leading remedy for both Alopecia areata and Alopecia universalis.
Falling off of hairs, the new hair is dry and breaks off easily.
Early Baldness.
Severe itching of the head.

Pattern hair loss

loss is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp. In male-pattern hair loss (MPHL), the hair loss often presents itself as either a receding hairline, loss of hair on the crown (vertex) of the scalp or a combination of both, while in female-pattern hair loss (FPHL), it typically presents as a thinning of the hair.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Same as above

. Premature greying of hair

also known as canities, can have negative effects on appearance, confidence, self-esteem, and social acceptance of the affected individual. Hair is said to have greyed prematurely if it occurs before the age of 20 years in Europeans, before 25 years in Asians, and before 30 years in Africans.

Pathophysiology of Premature graying of hairs

The onset and progression of graying correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature graying may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Acid Phosphoricum

Hair turns gray early in life and falls out.
Hairs are thin, delicate and easy to break.
Hair fall and graying of hairs after grief.
Patient is thin, emaciated with profound mental and physical weakness.
Indifference to everything.

Vinca Minor

Hair falls out and is replaced by grey hair.
Bald spots on the head covered with short, woolly hair.
Corrosive itching of scalp with irresistible desire to scratch.

Lycopodium Clavatum

Premature baldness and graying of hairs.
Hair falls off scalp, but increases on other parts of body.
Baldness – hair falls out first on the vertex, later on the temples.
Patient loves sweet and always prefer warm food.

Syphilinum -

Early graying of hairs in young adults.
Great falling of hairs.
History of alcoholism in family.
Syphilitic affections.

Syphilinum -

Early graying of hairs in young adults.
Great falling of hairs.
History of alcoholism in family.
Syphilitic affections.

4.Bubble hair deformity

is an abnormality of the hair shaft. It is characterized by rows of bubbles seen microscopically within localized areas of brittle hair

Homoeopathic Medicines

Graphites -

Thin but hard hairs, liable to break easily.
Baldness on the sides of head.
Hair turns gray.
Excessive sweat on scalp.

Thuja -

Dry and lusterless hairs.
White, scaly dandruff on scalp with falling of hairs.
Oily, greasy skin.
Profuse sweat in obese patients.

5. Hypertrichosis

is an abnormal amount of hair growth over the body. The two distinct types of hypertrichosis are generalized hypertrichosis, which occurs over the entire body, and localized hypertrichosis, which is restricted to a certain area. Hypertrichosis can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. The excess growth of hair occurs in areas of the skin with the exception of androgen-dependent hair of the pubic area, face, and axillary regions.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Thuja -

Excessive hair growths on whole body .
Hairs on face in obese women.
Unibrow.
Profuse perspiration

Medorrhinum -

Hair growth on unwanted parts.
Mustache in females.
Hypertrichosis with rheumatism in middle ages women.

Tuberculinum -

Unibrow
Too much of hairs on whole body in thin, tall individuals

Tuberculinum -

Thyriodinum
Excessive hair growth on body

6. Hair casts

- (also known as "Pseudonits") represent remnants of the inner root sheath, and often occur in great numbers and may mimic nits in the scalp

Homoeopathic Medicines

Vinca Minor –

Spots on scalp with oozing moisture. (Humid eruptions) Matting hair together.
Corrosive itching of scalp with irresistible desire to scratch.
Hair falls out and is replaced by grey hair.
Bald spots on the head covered with short, woolly hair

7. Ingrown hair

- is a condition where a hair curls back or grows sideways into the skin. The condition is most prevalent among people who have coarse or curly hair. It may or may not be accompanied by an infection of the hair follicle (folliculitis) or "razor bumps" (pseudofolliculitis barbae), which vary in size. While ingrown hair most commonly appears in areas where the skin is shaved or waxed (beard, legs, pubic region).

Homoeopathic Treatment

Borax -

Lashes turn inward (Entropion) Hair tangled at tips, cannot be separated.

Silicea Terra -

Hairs of scalp turns inward.
Ingrown nails.
Boils, abscesses, felons and old fistulous ulcers.
Every little injury suppurates.

8. Tinea capitis

is a disease caused by superficial fungal infection of the skin of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, with a propensity for attacking hair shafts and follicles. The disease is considered to be a form of superficial mycosis or dermatophytosis.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Arsenic Album -

Circular patches of bare spots on scalp.
Intolerable itching of scalp.
Scalp is rough, dry, itchy and dirty and covered with scales.
Tinea capitis with dandruff.
Scalp is very sensitive, cannot brush hair.

Dulcamara -

Tinea Capitis , scald head with thick brown crust.
Scalp bleeds when scratched.
Humid eruptions.
Dampness and rainy season aggravates all complaints

Mezereum -

Circular patches on scalp with yellow-brown scab over it.
Oozing and bleeding from scalp.
Intolerable itching of scalp.
Skin and hair problems in children after vaccination

9. Dandruff

is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp. Symptoms include flaking and sometimes mild itchiness. It can result in social or self-esteem problems. A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of the skin, is known as seborrhoeic dermatitis

Homoeopathic Medicines

Natrum Muraticum -

Has a marked action on hair follicles.
Dandruff of white color.
Dry eruptions, dandruff and scales especially on the margins of hairy scalp, behind the ears and bends of joints.
Oily, greasy skin.
Patient has an extreme desire for salt and salty food with great thirst.

Phosphorus -

Itching of scalp, dandruff, falling out of hairs in large bunches.
Falling of hairs from forepart of head and especially above ears.
Dry scabs and great scaliness of scalp.
Patient is very susceptible to clod yet loves cold drinks.

Thuja -

White, scaly dandruff on scalp with falling of hairs.
Dry and lusterless hairs.
Oily, greasy skin.
Profuse sweat in obese patients.

Kalium Sulphuricum -

Dandruff and scald head (Crusty Eruptions)
Dandruff of yellow/copper/honey colored.
Severe itching of scalp with big flakes. .

10. Cradle cap

causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.

Homoeopathic Medicines

Calcarea Carbonica -

Yellow scab formation on scalp in infants who sweats profusely.
Unhealthy and untidy skin.
Severe itching of scalp.
For those children who loves to eat eggs, potatoes and sweets.

Vinca Minor -

Thick yellow eruptions on scalp with oozing moisture. (Humid eruptions)
Matting hair together.
Corrosive itching of scalp with irresistible desire to scratch.

Mezereum -

White, scaly dandruff on scalp with falling of hairs.
Dry and lusterless hairs.
Oily, greasy skin.
Profuse sweat in obese patients.

Kalium Sulphuricum -

Eruptions on scalp with yellow-brown scab over it.
Oozing and bleeding from scalp.
Intolerable itching of scalp.
Skin and hair problems in children after vaccination .