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HEMATOLOGY

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells

Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma

(A) The blood cells are mainly

1. Red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes).
2. White blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and
3. Platelets (also called thrombocytes). ,Br /> The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells.
(B) Plasma , which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume) and contains - 1. Proteins.
2. Glucose
3. Mineral ions
4. Hormones
5. Carbon dioxide and
6. Blood cells themselves

Blood performs many important functions within the body, including-
1. Supply of oxygen to tissues.
2. Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.
3. Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid.
4 . Immunological functions , including circulation of white blood cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies.
5. Coagulation , the response to a broken blood vessel, the conversion of blood from a liquid to a semisolid gel to stop bleeding.
6. Messenger functions , including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage.
7. Regulation of core body temperature.
8. Hydraulic functions

Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In humans, blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins. It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism by cells, to the lungs to be exhaled.
Hematological disorders of blood could be broadly divided into four main categories and they are-

(A) Anemia.
(B) Disorders of cell proliferation.
(C) Disorders of coagulation.
(D) Infectious disorders of blood.
Anemia is a condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues. Having anemia can make you feel tired and weak.

There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and it can range from mild to severe.

Types of anemia- 1. Aplastic anemia Aplastic anemia is a condition that occurs when your body stops

producing enough new blood cells. The condition leaves you fatigued and more prone to infections and uncontrolled bleeding.

A rare and serious condition, aplastic anemia can develop at any age. It can occur suddenly, or it can come on slowly and worsen over time. It can be mild or severe.

2. Iron deficiency anemia Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough of a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen (hemoglobin). As a result, iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath.

3. Sickle cell anemia Sickle cell anemia is one of a group of disorders known as sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited red blood cell disorder in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout your body. Normally, the flexible, round red blood cells move easily through blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These rigid, sticky cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body

4. Thalassemia Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that causes your body to have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to carry oxygen. Thalassemia can cause anemia, leaving you fatigued.

5. Vitamin deficiency anemia Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells caused when you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins. Vitamins linked to vitamin deficiency anemia include folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin C. Vitamin deficiency anemia can occur if you don't eat enough foods containing folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin C, or it can occur if your body has trouble absorbing or processing these vitamins.

Homoeopathic Medicines -


Natrum Muraticum - Prolonged intake of excessive salt causes profound nutritive changes in the system, resulting in salt retention and alteration in the blood causing a condition of anemia.
Thin, oily, greasy, earthy complexion, pale appearance with marked emaciation in the neck.
Great debility. Maximum weakness is felt in the morning.
Dryness of all mucus membranes with great thirst.
Severe headache.

Ferrum Metallicum - For young weak people, anemic and chlorotic with pseudo-plethora, who flushes easily.
Pallor of skin, mucous membranes, face alternating with flushes.
Weakness merely from speaking or walking, though looks strongly.
Cold extremities, muscles flabby and relaxed.
Oversensitiveness.
Irregular distribution of blood.

Medorrhinum -
Profound weakness with chronic rheumatism.
Pallor on face.
Difficult concentration.
During sleep she lies on abdomen.
Desire refreshing things such as oranges.

Trinitrotoluenum (T.N.T) - Symptoms found in immunition workers handling T.N.T who inhale, ingest and also absorb some through skin. Destructive action of T.N.T on the red blood corpuscles is responsible for anemia and jaundice with their secondary symptoms.

The hemoglobin is changed so it cannot act satisfactorily as an oxygen carrier and as a result we have breathlessness, dizziness, headache, faintness, palpitation, fatigue and muscle cramps.

Calcarea Carbonica –

Chief action of this medicine is centered in the vegetative sphere, impaired nutrition being the keynote of its action.
Increased local and generalized perspiration.
Chalky look of patient, slow in perception, cannot do mental work.
Extreme chilliness.
Breathlessness on going upstairs.
Buring soles and sweat of hands.
Patient is worse from any sort of physical or mental effort.

(B) Disorders of cell proliferation.
Leukemia is a group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells. These blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections. These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells. Diagnosis is typically made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy
is an uncommon myeloproliferative neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. It may also result in the overproduction of white blood cells and platelets
are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature, so do not become healthy blood cells. Early on, no symptoms typically are seen. Later, symptoms may include feeling tired, shortness of breath, easy bleeding, or frequent infections. Some types may develop into acute myeloid leukemia

Homoeopathic Medicines


Arsenic Iodatum -
Hardness of glands of body.
Slightest exertion causes palpitation of heart and excessive perspiration.
Atherosclerosis.
Burning pains.
Corrosive discharges from orifices

Natrum ars. -
Marked Emaciation of the patient.
Burning all over the body

Baryta Iodatum -
Acts on lymphatic system, increased leucocytosis.
Indurated glands especially tonsils and breast.
Tumors.

(C) Disorders of coagulation.
is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding. This results in people bleeding for a longer time after an injury, easy bruising, and an increased risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain. Those with a mild case of the disease may have symptoms only after an accident or during surgery. Bleeding into a joint can result in permanent damage while bleeding in the brain can result in long term headaches, seizures, or a decreased level of consciousness.
can also result in coagulopathy (bleeding disorders
(sometimes called hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels). Such abnormalities can be identified in 50% of people who have an episode of thrombosis (such as deep vein thrombosis in the leg) that was not provoked by other causes. A significant proportion of the population has a detectable thrombophilic abnormality, but most of these develop thrombosis only in the presence of an additional risk factor.

Homoeopathic Medicines -
Arnica Montana -
A chief remedy for coagulation of blood.
Promotes coagulation during injury and arrest bleeding instantly.
Arnica also works exactly opposite to it, and helps in dissolving the clots. Prevents embolism and thrombosis.
Black-bluish spots on the body.
Ecchymosis and hemorrhages.
Upper part of body is hot and lower is cold.

Crotalus Horridus - Generalized disorganization of blood, haemorrhages and jaundice.
Increases the rate of coagulation of blood.
Decomposition of blood, haemorrhages - dark fluid that forms no clots.
Tendency to carbuncles.

Phosphorus -
Hemorrhagic diatheses. Flow of bright red blood.
Phosphorus promotes coagulation of blood and stops the bleeding.
Destructive metabolism, fatty liver.
Patient loves to have cold drinks and icy cold water

X-Ray -
Increases the number of platelets and helps in coagulation.
Especially given to those patients who had a history of continued or repeated exposure to radiation or rays.
Anemia and leukemia.
Patient presents with obstinate skin lesions which refuses to heal.

Lachesis -
Decomposition of blood, rendering it more fluid, hence hemorrhagic tendencies is marked.
Bluish discoloration of skin.
Cannot bear anything tight anywhere.
All complaints worse during sleep.
Marked prostration, trembling and confusion of mind.

(D) Infectious disorders of blood
1. Blood is an important vector of infection. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is transmitted through contact with blood, semen or other body secretions of an infected person. Hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily through blood contact. Owing to blood-borne infections, bloodstained objects are treated as a biohazard.

2. Bacterial infection of the blood is bacteremia or sepsis. Viral Infection is viremia. Malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections

1. Complete blood count (CBC)
Abnormal levels of these components may indicate -
Nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B-6 or B-12
Iron deficiency
Bone marrow issues
Tissue inflammation
Infection
Heart conditions
Cancer

2. Basic metabolic panel
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) checks for levels of certain compounds in the blood, such as -
Electrolytes
Calcium
Glucose
Sodium
Potassium
Carbon dioxide
Chloride
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Creatinine

3. Complete metabolic panel
A complete metabolic panel (CMP) includes all the measurements of a BMP as well as additional proteins and substances related to liver function-
Albumin
Total protein
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Bilirubin.

4. Lipid panel
This test checks levels of two types of cholesterol Trusted Source -
High-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good” cholesterol.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol

5. Thyroid panel
A thyroid panel, or thyroid function test, checks how well your thyroid is producing and reacting to certain hormones, such as:

Triiodothyronine (T3) - Along with T4, this regulates your heart rate and body temperature.
T3 resin uptake (RU) - This measures how well a hormone called thyroxin-binding globulin is binding.
Thyroxine (T4) - Along with T3, this regulates your metabolism and how you grow.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - This helps regulate the levels of hormones your thyroid releases

6. Enzyme markers

7. Sexually transmitted disease tests

8. Coagulation panel

9. C-reactive protein test